1772 - 1825

A set of silver portrait coins from Mexico Mint: 
8R 1800 FM; 4R 1801 FT; 2R 1799 FM; 1R 1800 FM; 1/2R 1799 FM
Spanish Colonial. These machine-made silver coins, also known as "bust" coinage, established the modern numismatic practice of imprinting the image of the current ruler on the face of the coin. Perhaps due to the fact that their silver fineness had by now been reduced to 902.66 and due partly to rampant counterfeiting, their universal acceptability suffered greatly such that merchants, particularly the Chinese, often stamped distinctive "chop marks" and applied test cuts on various parts of the coin in order to attest to their fineness and integrity.

Plan of the City of  Manila showing the Pasig River 
and adjoining areas. Indicated are major landmarks 
such as the Puente de Espana (bridge), the suburbs, 
the Chinese quarter (parian) and hospital for
sangleyes, churches, schools, convents, fortifications and the moat the surrounds intramuros.