Also known as "doublooms", these coins were the gold counterparts of the
silver portraits. They were likewise minted in Spanish and colonial mints
(where native mines and forced labor were abundant) in different denominations
(8 escudos, 4 escudos, 2 escudos, 1 escudo and half escudo) and circulated
in the colonies including the Philippines.
and the hoard of silver coins that usually accompanied them were carried
by lumbering galleons that regularly departed from Acapulco for the East
which Dutch, English and other raiders and adventurers eagerly preyed upon.