10083 - Aguinaldo, the famous Insurrecto and His Son,
Manila, Island of Luzon, P.I.

This mild looking person is the man who led the Filipinos in their war against the United States. Emilio Aguinaldo (a' ge-nal' do) was born in the province of Cavite in Luzon on March 22, 1869. His early education was received at the College of St. Jean de Lateran and at the University of St. Thomas in Manila. Later he studied medicine. He went to Hongkong in 1888, where he gained some knowledge of warfare.

When the Filipino rebellion against Spain broke out in 1896 Aguinaldo was teaching school. His magnetic personality with his previous training fitted him to become a leader. In Singapore, Aguinaldo met the Americans and offered to lead a new insurrection against the Spanish in conjunction with the United States Navy, and Admiral Dewey had him and seven other leaders taken to the Philippines.

When the Spanish War was over, Aguinaldo expected that the Philippines would be independent. When President McKinley made General Otis governor of the islands, the Filipino Congress led by Aguinaldo declared war on the American troops.

In an open battle the Philippine soldiers had no chance against the Americans so they conducted a guerilla warfare from their swamps and wildernesses. It was very destructive to the Americans who suffered especially from the climate. In February, 1901, Aguinaldo was captured by a band of Americans and two months later issued a proclamation acknowledging American sovereignty. The war dragged on for two years and it was not until 1902 that the Philippines were declared pacified.